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    今日福彩3d好运彩字谜 0506供给、需求与政府政策

    好运查理第四季在线:0506供给、需求与政府政策.ppt

    0506供给、需求与政府政策

    ranfand
    2019-03-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

    今日福彩3d好运彩字谜 www.qwbcf.com 简介:本文档为《0506供给、需求与政府政策ppt》,可适用于市场营销领域

    经济学原理陈志广南京大学政府管理学院chenzhiguangnjueducn第五讲供给、需求与政府政策一、价格控制二、税收改变私人市场结果的政府政策价格控制:价格上限:出售一种物品或服务的法定最高价格比如:租金控制价格下限:出售一种物品或服务的法定最低价格比如:最低工资税收:政府要求买者或卖者每买进或卖出一单位物品所支付的一定数量的货币*Thisslideoutlinesthechapter例:公寓市场没有价格控制的均衡*WestartbyanalyzingtheeffectsofapriceceilingThemostcommonexampleisrentcontrol,sowedotheanalysisinthecontextofthisexampleWebeginbyshowingthemarketforapartmentsinequilibrium(beforethegovernmentimposesanypricecontrols)价格上限如何影响市场结果价格上限高于均衡均衡价格时没有限制性mdash即对市场结果没有影响*Whensomestudentsseethisforthefirsttime,theywonderwhythepriceceilingdoesnotresultinasurplusWhenthepriceceilingisabovetheequilibriumprice,theequilibriumpriceisstillperfectlylegalJustbecauselandlordsareallowedtocharge$rentdoesnrsquotmeantheywillndashiftheydo,theywonrsquotbeabletorentalloftheirapartmentsndashasurpluswillresult,causingdownwardpressureontheprice(rent)Therersquosnolawthatpreventstheprice(rent)fromfalling,soitdoesfalluntilthesurplusisgoneandequilibriumisreached(atP=$andQ=)价格上限如何影响市场结果均衡价格($)高于价格上限因此是违法的价格上限是一种限制性约束这导致了短缺$*Inthiscase,thepriceceilingisbindingInthenewequilibriumwiththepriceceiling,theactualprice(rent)ofanapartmentwillbe$Itwonrsquotbemorethanthat,becauseanyhigherpriceisillegalItwonrsquotbelessthan$,becausetheshortagewouldbeevenlargerifthepricewerelowerTheactualquantityofapartmentsrentedequals,andthereisashortageequalto(thedifferencebetweenthequantitydemanded,,andthequantitysupplied,)价格上限如何影响市场结果长期供给与需求都更具有弹性。因此短期更加严重$*Inthisslide,theequilibriumprice($)andpriceceiling($)arethesameasontheprecedingslides,butsupplyanddemandaremorepriceelasticthanbefore,andtheshortagethatresultsfromabindingpriceceilingislarger短缺与配给面临短缺时卖者必须在买者之间配给稀缺物品配给机制:()排长队()根据卖者的偏好这些配件机制既可能是不公平的也是无效率的:因为物品并不一定会卖给对它评价最高的买者与此相比一个自由竞争市场中的配给机制既有效率(物品卖给对它评价最高的买者)也是客观的(就是公平的)*ThelasttwobulletsdiscussldquoefficiencyrdquointhecontextofrationinggoodstothosebuyerswhovaluethemmosthighlyThisconceptwillbeexploredfurtherinthefollowingchapter租金控制的意料之外效果房产闲置破败还不能拆税收公共费用修缮费用租金收入房子的枷锁:搬家高成本(如押金)挑选房客:歧视低收入者特别是有小孩、单亲妈妈等例:缺乏技能的劳动力的市场没有价格控制时的均衡*NowweswitchgearsandlookattheeffectsofapricefloorWeillustratethisconceptusingthecommontextbookexamplendashtheminimumwageThismaybethefirsttimestudentshaveseenasupplydemanddiagramofthelabormarketItmightbeusefultonotethattheldquopricerdquooflaborissimplythewage,whichwemeasureontheverticalaxisofoursupplydemanddiagramAlongthehorizontalaxis,wemeasurethequantityoflabor(numberofworkers)ThedemandforunskilledlaborcomesfromfirmsThesupplycomesfromworkersWefocusonunskilledlaborbecausetheminimumwageisnotrelevantforhigherskilled,higherwageworkers价格下限如何影响市场结果低于均衡价格的的价格下限没有限制性mdash即对市场结果没有影响*Somestudentsmaywonderwhythe$pricefloordoesnotcauseashortageAfterall,atawageof$,thequantityofunskilledworkersthatfirmswishtohireexceedsthequantityofunskilledworkersthatarelookingforjobsButtheminimumwagelawdoesnotstopthewagefromrisingabove$So,inresponsetothisshortage,thewagewillriseuntiltheshortagedisappearsndashwhichoccursattheequilibriumwageof$Theequilibriumwageisperfectlylegalwhenthepricefloor(ieminimumwage)isbelowit价格下限如何影响市场结果均衡价格($)低于价格下限因此是违法的价格下限是一种限制性约束引起了过剩(也就是失业)*Now,theminimumwageexceedstheequilibriumwageTheequilibriumwage(oranywagebelow$)isillegalInthiscase,theactualwagewillbe$Itwillnotbelower,becauseanylowerwageisillegalItwillnotbehigher,becauseatanyhigherwage,thesurpluswouldbeevengreaterTheactualnumberofunskilledworkerswithjobsequalswantjobs,birmsareonlywillingtohire,leavingasurplus(ieunemployment)ofworkersAsurplusofanythingndashespeciallylaborndashrepresentswastedresources最低工资法对技能高的工人并没有影响它们影响的是青少年研究表明:最低工资每上升就会使青少年就业减少。最低工资价格控制决定下述政策的影响:A价格上限为$B价格下限为$C价格下限为$*Agoodexercisetobreakupthelecture,engagestudents,andassesstheirlearningsofar价格上限为$价格降低到$买者的需求是个房间而卖者只愿意供给个房间导致短缺*价格下限为$均衡价格高于价格下限因此价格下限没有限制性P=$,Q=个房间价格下限*价格下限为$价格上升到$。买者的需求是个房间而卖者的供给是个房间导致过剩*对价格控制的评价第一章讨论的经济学十大原理之一是:市场通常是组织经济活动的一种好方法价格是指引社会资源配置的信号。当政府进行价格控制时这种配置通?;岱⑸浠鄹窨刂葡氚镏钊说瓷撕α四切┧鞠氚镏娜?RE:thelastbulletldquopricecontrolsoftenhurtthepoormorethanhelpthemrdquoWehaveseenthattheminimumwagecancausejoblosses,andrentcontrolcanreducethequantityandqualityofaffordablehousingBothpoliciesmakethepoorworseoffItmightbeworthremindingstudentsthatouranalysishasbeeninthecontextofaworldwithoutmarketfailuresSubsequentchapters(exceptinthemacrosplit)willintroducesituationsinwhichgovernmentinterventioncanimproveontheprivatemarketoutcomeHowever,eveninsuchcases,theappropriatepolicyisusuallysomethingotherthanadirectpricecontrol税收政府对许多物品与劳务征税是为了给国防公立学校等这类公共项目筹资政府能想买者或卖者征税税收可以是物品价格的一个比例或者每售出一单位物品需支付一定数量的货币简化起见我们仅分析后者*TheslidesinthissectionhavebeenrevisedfromthepreviouseditionTheynowbetterexplainwhyataxonbuyersshiftsDdownbytheamountofthetax,andwhyataxonsellersshiftsSupbytheamountofthetax例:皮萨市场没有税收时的均衡向买者征税现在买者支付的价格比市场价格要高$为使买者购买相同多的数量价格需下降$例:要使买者仍愿意购买个市场价格需从$下降到$向买者征收$的税收对买者征税使需求曲线向下移动其幅度为税收量*NOTE:Onthisandsubsequentslides,ldquoPBrdquodenotesthepricebuyerspayandldquoPSrdquodenotesthepricesellersreceive(TheChapterPowerPointusesthesamenotationforthewelfareanalysisoftaxes)Thegovernmentmakesbuyerspaya$oneachpizzatheypurchaseThenewdemandcurve(inred,labeledD)reflectsbuyersrsquodemandasafunctionoftheaftertaxpriceTheoriginaldemandcurve(D)stillreflectsbuyersrsquodemandasafunctionofthetotalpricendashinclusiveofthetaxThus,buyersrsquodemandhasnrsquotreallychanged:ateachquantity,theheightoftheoriginal(blue)Dcurveisstillthemaximumthatbuyerswillpayforthatquantity,whiletheheightofthenew(red)Dcurveisthemaximumthatbuyerswillpaysellersforthatquantity,giventhatbuyersalsomustpaythetaxAtanyQ,theverticaldistancebetweentheblueandredDcurvesequalsthetax(Ifthiswereapercentagetaxratherthanaperunittax,thenewDcurvewouldnotbeparalleltotheoldone,itwouldbeflatter:ataxofagivenpercentagewouldbealargerdollaramountathighpricesthanatlowprices,sothedownwardshiftwouldbegreaterinabsolutetermswhenPishighthanwhenitislowThisisthetypeofcomplexityweavoidbyworkingwithperunittaxes)向买者征税向买者征收$的税收新均衡:Q=卖者得到的价格:PS=$买者支付的价格:PB=$两者之差=$=税收税收归宿税收负担在市场参与者之间进行分配的方式在我们的例子中买者支付$的税收卖者支付$的税收*ldquoMarketparticipantsrdquosimplymeansbuyersandsellers向卖者征税向卖者征税$税收增加了卖者的成本$卖者只有在市场价格上升到$时才愿意出售个匹萨因为只有如此才能弥补成本的增加因此对卖者征税使供给曲线向上移动移动幅度为税收量*Thegovernmentmakessellerspaya$oneachpizzatheysellThenew,redsupplycurvereflectssellersrsquosupplyasafunctionoftheaftertaxprice向卖者征税向卖者征税$新的均衡:Q=买者支付PB=$卖者得到PS=$两者之差=$=税收两种情况下结果是相同的!在这两种情况下:税收都在买者支付的价格和卖者得到的价格之间打入了一个契子PB=PS=税收无论对买者还是卖者征税最后的市场价格均衡数量以及税收归宿都是相同的!*Whetherthegovernmentmakesbuyersorsellerspaythetax,alloftheeffectsarethesame:thepricebuyerspayrises(inthiscaseto$)thepricesellersreceivefalls(to$)theequilibriumquantityfalls(to)theincidenceofthetaxisthesame(here,buyerspay$ofthetax,whilesellerspay$ofthetaxoneachunit)Thisshouldmakesenseifstudentsthinkitthrough:Ataxonbuyersmeansbuyerswillhavetopaymore,whichcausestheirdemandtofallThefallindemandhurtssellers,forcingthemtoreducetheirpriceSimilarly,ataxonsellersislikeacostincrease,andsellerspassalongaportionofthatincreasetobuyersintheformofhigherpricesTheequivalenceoftaxesonbuyersandtaxesonsellersmeansthatwecanignorewhetherthetaxisimposedonbuyersorsellersAllthatmattersisthesizeofthetaxSo,infutureproblems,wecanthinkofthetaxasawedgebetweenthepricebuyerspayandthepricesellersreceiveOnasupplydemanddiagram,thiswedgeisaverticallinesegment(showningreenonthisgraph)YoucanthinkoftakingatoothpickthesizeofthetaxandwedgingitbetweentheSandDcurvesThequantityatwhichthetoothpickfitsjustsnugglyisthenewequilibriumquantityStudentswillhaveachancetopracticethisinamomentwithanexerciseOnelastremark:Someoneoncesaidldquoifyouwantlessofsomething,taxitrdquoAtaxonanygoodorservicecausesafallinitsquantityThisisbecausepeoplerespondtoincentives:thetaxgivesbuyersanincentivetobuylessandgivessellersanincentivetoproduceless税收的影响假定政府对买者所入住的每个房间都征税$找出新的Q,PB,PS,以及税收归宿ThesearethesamesupplyanddemandcurvesusedinthepreviousexerciseQ=PB=$PS=$税收归宿买者:$卖者:$First,theequilibriumquantityisthequantitywherePBndashPS=$ThisquantityisNext,tofindPB,startatQ=andgouptothedemandcurvetoseethatPB=$TofindPS,startatQ=andgouptothesupplycurvetoseethatPS=$Tofindincidence,justcomparePBandPStothenotaxequilibriumprice,$弹性与税收归宿案例:供给相对于需求更富有弹性卖者相对于买者更容易离开市场因此买者承担了大部分税负*WehavejustseenthattaxincidenceisnotaffectedbywhetherthegovernmentmakesbuyersorsellerspaythetaxSowhat,then,doesdeterminetaxincidenceTurnsoutitrsquoselasticityndashspecifically,thepriceelasticitiesofsupplyanddemandTherearetwocases:)supplyismorepriceelasticthandemand(thisslide),and)demandismorepriceelasticthansupply(nextslide)Whensupplyismorepriceelasticthandemand,sellersarerelativelymoreresponsivetochangesinprice,andthesupplycurveislesssteepthanthedemandcurveBuyershaverelativelyfeweralternatives,sotheyhavetoldquoeatrdquomostofthepriceincreasecausedbytheimpositionofthetaxAsthetextbookputsit,sellerscanmoreeasilyleavethemarketinresponsetothetaxthancanbuyersThus,buyersarestuckbearingmostoftheburdenofthetax弹性与税收归宿案例:需求相对于供给更富有弹性买者相对于卖者更容易离开市场因此卖者承担了大部分的税负*ThesizeofthetaxisthesameinthisdiagramasintheoneontheprecedingslideWhendemandismorepriceelasticthansupply,buyersarerelativelymorepricesensitive,andthedemandcurveislesssteepthanthesupplycurveBuyershaverelativelymorealternatives,sotheycanavoidmostofthetaxSellersarelessflexible,sotheyhavetoldquoeatrdquoagreatershareofthepriceincreasecausedbythetaxFromthetextbook:BuyerscanmoreeasilyleavethemarketthansellersinresponsetothetaxThus,sellersendupwithmostoftheburdenofthetax案例研究:谁支付奢侈品税在年国会通过了一项针对游艇私人飞机皮衣珠宝和豪华轿车这类物品的新的奢侈品税税收的目的增加富人的税收但真正支付税收的人士谁?*ThiscasestudyshowsstudentsaninterestingrealworldexampleofthematerialtheyjustlearnedIfyoursquorepressedfortime,itisprobablysafetoskipitandletstudentsreaditontheirownItdoesnotintroduceanynewconcepts,andmoststudentsdonotfinditdifficulttoread案例研究:谁支付奢侈品税游艇市场需求是富有弹性的在短期内供给缺乏弹性因此游艇工厂承担了大部分的税收*Demandforyachts(andotherluxuryitems)ispriceelastic:ifthepriceofyachtsrises,richconsumerscaneasilyavoidthetaxbyspendingtheirmillionsonsomeotherluxuryitemSupplyofyachtsislesselastic,especiallyintheshortrunItisdifficultforthecompaniesthatbuildyachtstoretooltheirfactoriesandreeducatetheirworkerstoproducesomeotherproductHence,companiesthatbuildyachtspaymostofthetax,andtherichpayrelativelylittleofitThesameistruefortaxesonotherluxuryitems结论:政府政策与资源的配置本章的两种政策都会影响社会资源的配置:例:对皮萨的征税降低了均衡数量。当皮萨的产量降低时资源(工人烤箱奶酪)将会转移到其它行业例:一个限制性的最低工资会引起工人的超额供给这是对资源的浪费因此决策者在应用这些政策时需要非常小心*RecalloneoftheprinciplesfromChapter:MarketsareusuallyagoodwaytoorganizeeconomicactivityThismeansthat,inabsenceofmarketfailures(whichwewilllearnmoreaboutinlaterchapters),theallocationofresourcesresultingfromthefreemarketequilibriumisoptimalHence,governmentpolicieswhichalterthisallocationtendtomaketheeconomyworseoffWhenwestudymarketfailureslater,wewillseethatgovernmentpoliciescanndashinprinciplendashimproveonthemarketrsquosallocationofresources,andmakesocietybetteroffFirst,though,weneedtolearnhowtomeasuretheimpactofgovernmentpoliciesliketaxesonsocietyrsquoswellbeing,aswellasdefinewhat,exactly,wemeanbyldquowellbeingrdquoThisfieldofstudy,calledldquowelfareeconomics,rdquoisthetopicofthefollowingthreechapters*Thisslideoutlinesthechapter*WestartbyanalyzingtheeffectsofapriceceilingThemostcommonexampleisrentcontrol,sowedotheanalysisinthecontextofthisexampleWebeginbyshowingthemarketforapartmentsinequilibrium(beforethegovernmentimposesanypricecontrols)*Whensomestudentsseethisforthefirsttime,theywonderwhythepriceceilingdoesnotresultinasurplusWhenthepriceceilingisabovetheequilibriumprice,theequilibriumpriceisstillperfectlylegalJustbecauselandlordsareallowedtocharge$rentdoesnrsquotmeantheywillndashiftheydo,theywonrsquotbeabletorentalloftheirapartmentsndashasurpluswillresult,causingdownwardpressureontheprice(rent)Therersquosnolawthatpreventstheprice(rent)fromfalling,soitdoesfalluntilthesurplusisgoneandequilibriumisreached(atP=$andQ=)*Inthiscase,thepriceceilingisbindingInthenewequilibriumwiththepriceceiling,theactualprice(rent)ofanapartmentwillbe$Itwonrsquotbemorethanthat,becauseanyhigherpriceisillegalItwonrsquotbelessthan$,becausetheshortagewouldbeevenlargerifthepricewerelowerTheactualquantityofapartmentsrentedequals,andthereisashortageequalto(thedifferencebetweenthequantitydemanded,,andthequantitysupplied,)*Inthisslide,theequilibriumprice($)andpriceceiling($)arethesameasontheprecedingslides,butsupplyanddemandaremorepriceelasticthanbefore,andtheshortagethatresultsfromabindingpriceceilingislarger*ThelasttwobulletsdiscussldquoefficiencyrdquointhecontextofrationinggoodstothosebuyerswhovaluethemmosthighlyThisconceptwillbeexploredfurtherinthefollowingchapter*NowweswitchgearsandlookattheeffectsofapricefloorWeillustratethisconceptusingthecommontextbookexamplendashtheminimumwageThismaybethefirsttimestudentshaveseenasupplydemanddiagramofthelabormarketItmightbeusefultonotethattheldquopricerdquooflaborissimplythewage,whichwemeasureontheverticalaxisofoursupplydemanddiagramAlongthehorizontalaxis,wemeasurethequantityoflabor(numberofworkers)ThedemandforunskilledlaborcomesfromfirmsThesupplycomesfromworkersWefocusonunskilledlaborbecausetheminimumwageisnotrelevantforhigherskilled,higherwageworkers*Somestudentsmaywonderwhythe$pricefloordoesnotcauseashortageAfterall,atawageof$,thequantityofunskilledworkersthatfirmswishtohireexceedsthequantityofunskilledworkersthatarelookingforjobsButtheminimumwagelawdoesnotstopthewagefromrisingabove$So,inresponsetothisshortage,thewagewillriseuntiltheshortagedisappearsndashwhichoccursattheequilibriumwageof$Theequilibriumwageisperfectlylegalwhenthepricefloor(ieminimumwage)isbelowit*Now,theminimumwageexceedstheequilibriumwageTheequilibriumwage(oranywagebelow$)isillegalInthiscase,theactualwagewillbe$Itwillnotbelower,becauseanylowerwageisillegalItwillnotbehigher,becauseatanyhigherwage,thesurpluswouldbeevengreaterTheactualnumberofunskilledworkerswithjobsequalswantjobs,birmsareonlywillingtohire,leavingasurplus(ieunemployment)ofworkersAsurplusofanythingndashespeciallylaborndashrepresentswastedresourcesAgoodexercisetobreakupthelecture,engagestudents,andassesstheirlearningsofar*RE:thelastbulletldquopricecontrolsoftenhurtthepoormorethanhelpthemrdquoWehaveseenthattheminimumwagecancausejoblosses,andrentcontrolcanreducethequantityandqualityofaffordablehousingBothpoliciesmakethepoorworseoffItmightbeworthremindingstudentsthatouranalysishasbeeninthecontextofaworldwithoutmarketfailuresSubsequentchapters(exceptinthemacrosplit)willintroducesituationsinwhichgovernmentinterventioncanimproveontheprivatemarketoutcomeHowever,eveninsuchcases,theappropriatepolicyisusuallysomethingotherthanadirectpricecontrol*TheslidesinthissectionhavebeenrevisedfromthepreviouseditionTheynowbetterexplainwhyataxonbuyersshiftsDdownbytheamountofthetax,andwhyataxonsellersshiftsSupbytheamountofthetax*NOTE:Onthisandsubsequentslides,ldquoPBrdquodenotesthepricebuyerspayandldquoPSrdquodenotesthepricesellersreceive(TheChapterPowerPointusesthesamenotationforthewelfareanalysisoftaxes)Thegovernmentmakesbuyerspaya$oneachpizzatheypurchaseThenewdemandcurve(inred,labeledD)reflectsbuyersrsquodemandasafunctionoftheaftertaxpriceTheoriginaldemandcurve(D)stillreflectsbuyersrsquodemandasafunctionofthetotalpricendashinclusiveofthetaxThus,buyersrsquodemandhasnrsquotreallychanged:ateachquantity,theheightoftheoriginal(blue)Dcurveisstillthemaximumthatbuyerswillpayforthatquantity,whiletheheightofthenew(red)Dcurveisthemaximumthatbuyerswillpaysellersforthatquantity,giventhatbuyersalsomustpaythetaxAtanyQ,theverticaldistancebetweentheblueandredDcurvesequalsthetax(Ifthiswereapercentagetaxratherthanaperunittax,thenewDcurvewouldnotbeparalleltotheoldone,itwouldbeflatter:ataxofagivenpercentagewouldbealargerdollaramountathighpricesthanatlowprices,sothedownwardshiftwouldbegreaterinabsolutetermswhenPishighthanwhenitislowThisisthetypeofcomplexityweavoidbyworkingwithperunittaxes)*ldquoMarketparticipantsrdquosimplymeansbuyersandsellers*Thegovernmentmakessellerspaya$oneachpizzatheysellThenew,redsupplycurvereflectssellersrsquosupplyasafunctionoftheaftertaxprice*Whetherthegovernmentmakesbuyersorsellerspaythetax,alloftheeffectsarethesame:thepricebuyerspayrises(inthiscaseto$)thepricesellersreceivefalls(to$)theequilibriumquantityfalls(to)theincidenceofthetaxisthesame(here,buyerspay$ofthetax,whilesellerspay$ofthetaxoneachunit)Thisshouldmakesenseifstudentsthinkitthrough:Ataxonbuyersmeansbuyerswillhavetopaymore,whichcausestheirdemandtofallThefallindemandhurtssellers,forcingthemtoreducetheirpriceSimilarly,ataxonsellersislikeacostincrease,andsellerspassalongaportionofthatincreasetobuyersintheformofhigherpricesTheequivalenceoftaxesonbuyersandtaxesonsellersmeansthatwecanignorewhetherthetaxisimposedonbuyersorsellersAllthatmattersisthesizeofthetaxSo,infutureproblems,wecanthinkofthetaxasawedgebetweenthepricebuyerspayandthepricesellersreceiveOnasupplydemanddiagram,thiswedgeisaverticallinesegment(showningreenonthisgraph)YoucanthinkoftakingatoothpickthesizeofthetaxandwedgingitbetweentheSandDcurvesThequantityatwhichthetoothpickfitsjustsnugglyisthenewequilibriumquantityStudentswillhaveachancetopracticethisinamomentwithanexerciseOnelastremark:Someoneoncesaidldquoifyouwantlessofsomething,taxitrdquoAtaxonanygoodorservicecausesafallinitsquantityThisisbecausepeoplerespondtoincentives:thetaxgivesbuyersanincentivetobuylessandgivessellersanincentivetoproducelessThesearethesamesupplyanddemandcurvesusedinthepreviousexerciseFirst,theequilibriumquantityisthequantitywherePBndashPS=$ThisquantityisNext,tofindPB,startatQ=andgouptothedemandcurvetoseethatPB=$TofindPS,startatQ=andgouptothesupplycurvetoseethatPS=$Tofindincidence,justcomparePBandPStothenotaxequilibriumprice,$*WehavejustseenthattaxincidenceisnotaffectedbywhetherthegovernmentmakesbuyersorsellerspaythetaxSowhat,then,doesdeterminetaxincidenceTurnsoutitrsquoselasticityndashspecifically,thepriceelasticitiesofsupplyanddemandTherearetwocases:)supplyismorepriceelasticthandemand(thisslide),and)demandismorepriceelasticthansupply(nextslide)Whensupplyismorepriceelasticthandemand,sellersarerelativelymoreresponsivetochangesinprice,andthesupplycurveislesssteepthanthedemandcurveBuyershaverelativelyfeweralternatives,sotheyhavetoldquoeatrdquomostofthepriceincreasecausedbytheimpositionofthetaxAsthetextbookputsit,sellerscanmoreeasilyleavethemarketinresponsetothetaxthancanbuyersThus,buyersarestuckbearingmostoftheburdenofthetax*ThesizeofthetaxisthesameinthisdiagramasintheoneontheprecedingslideWhendemandismorepriceelasticthansupply,buyersarerelativelymorepricesensitive,andthedemandcurveislesssteepthanthesupplycurveBuyershaverelativelymorealternatives,sotheycanavoidmostofthetaxSellersarelessflexible,sotheyhavetoldquoeatrdquoagreatershareofthepriceincreasecausedbythetaxFromthetextbook:BuyerscanmoreeasilyleavethemarketthansellersinresponsetothetaxThus,sellersendupwithmostoftheburdenofthetax*ThiscasestudyshowsstudentsaninterestingrealworldexampleofthematerialtheyjustlearnedIfyoursquorepressedfortime,itisprobablysafetoskipitandletstudentsreaditontheirownItdoesnotintroduceanynewconcepts,andmoststudentsdonotfinditdifficulttoread*Demandforyachts(andotherluxuryitems)ispriceelastic:ifthepriceofyachtsrises,richconsumerscaneasilyavoidthetaxbyspendingtheirmillionsonsomeotherluxuryitemSupplyofyachtsislesselastic,especiallyintheshortrunItisdifficultforthecompaniesthatbuildyachtstoretooltheirfactoriesandreeducatetheirworkerstoproducesomeotherproductH

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  • 481彩票网 七星彩预测 澳洲幸运8走势 三亚朝阳社区中国福利彩票销售点 四川金7乐电脑走势 18018期足彩进球彩 中国福彩网老时时彩 管家婆中特网王中王开 香港六合彩历史开奖记录 3d福彩 中国福彩网下载app 福彩15选5 悠悠球的玩法 福彩15选5开奖结果 超级大乐透开奖 上海时时乐走势图